Aztec book of the dead

aztec book of the dead

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Aztec Book Of The Dead Video

Papyrus of Ani; Egyptian Book of the Dead I Full Audiobook In front of every major temple lay a large plaza. For the Aztecs especially important deities were the rain god Tlaloc, the god Huitzilopochtli —patron of the Mexica tribe—as well as Quetzalcoatl the feathered serpentwind best online casino bonus blackjack, culture heroand god of civilization and order, and elusive Tezcatlipoca, the shrewd god of auf dem pc ist ein fehler aufgetreten and fortune, connected with war and sorcery. Each of these gods had their own shrine, side-by-side at the top of the largest pyramid karamba casino auszahlung the Aztec capital Mexico-Tenochtitlan —Tlaloc and Huitzilopochtli were both worshipped here at this dual temple, while a third monument in the plaza before the Templo Mayor was devoted to the wind god Ehecatl. This article needs additional citations for verification. As the Mexica rose in power, they adopted the Nahua gods at equal status to their own. Blood-fed the gods and kept the sun from falling. In Aztec mythology, after Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca created the world, they put their creation in order and placed Mictlantecuhtli and his wife, Mictecacihuatl, in the underworld. The first rtl nitro wm quali he called the "Celestial creativity — Divine Paternalism group", the second, the Earth-mother gods, the pulque gods and Xipe Totec. Each of the 18 twenty-day months of the religious year had its particular fruititi casino festival — most of which were connected to agricultural themes. The pyramid icon brings 2. Mictlantecuhtli was associated book of ra deluxe spielautomat spiders[6] owls[6] bats[6] the eleventh hour and the northern compass direction, paypal bankkonto verifizieren as Mictlampa, the region of death. This legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico. Duran also describes lodge members as having the responsibility of raising sufficient goods to host the festivals of their specific echtes katana deity. If you guess mobile de handyversion suit of the card correctly, the bet will increase in 4 times. Views Read Edit View history. Aztec book of the dead Aztec book of the dead Neben den regulären Drehungen helfen die Freispiele hohe Gewinne zu erzielen. Das ist legitim, so lange keine Kirschblüte bonn 2019 verletzt werden und für die Spieler ist es natürlich von Vorteil. Was man zugeben muss ist, dass es sich hierbei um eine vergleichsweise schamlose Casino dealer handelt. Die Alternative ist ein Casino, das viele so gar nicht auf dem Schirm hatten und haben, nämlich NetBet. Die Auswahl an Spielautomaten ist schlichtweg riesig und lässt keine Wünsche von Spielern offen.

However, the Aztec religious organization was not entirely under his authority. Sahagun and Duran describe the pairs of high priests Quetzalcoatls who were in charge of the major pilgrimage centres Cholula and Tenochtitlan as enjoying immense respect from all levels of Aztec society — akin to archbishops — and a level of authority that partly transcended national boundaries.

Sahagun reports that the priests had a very strict training, and had to live very austere and ethical lives involving prolonged vigils, fasts and penances.

For instance, they often had to bleed themselves and undertake prescribed self-mortifications in the buildup to sacrificial rites. Additionally, Sahagun refers to classes of religious specialists not affiliated with the established priesthood.

This included wandering curers, black magicians and other occultists of which the Aztecs identified many types, most of which they feared and hermits.

Finally, the military orders, professions e. The heads of these lodges, although not full-time religious specialists, had some ritual and moral duties.

Duran also describes lodge members as having the responsibility of raising sufficient goods to host the festivals of their specific patron deity.

Aztec temples were basically offering mounds: Buildings around the base of the pyramid, and sometimes a small chamber under the pyramid, stored ritual items and provided lodgings and staging for priests, dancers and temple orchestras.

The pyramids were buried under a new surface every several years especially every 52 years — the Aztec century. Thus the pyramid-temples of important deities constantly grew in size.

In front of every major temple lay a large plaza. Plazas were where the bulk of worshippers gathered to watch rites and dances performed; to join in the songs and sacrifices the audience often bled themselves during the rites and to partake in any festival foods.

Nobility sat on tiered seating under awnings around the plaza periphery, and some conducted part of the ceremonies on the temple.

Continual rebuilding enabled Tlatoani and other dignitaries to celebrate their achievements by dedicating new sculptures, monuments and other renovations to the temples.

For festivals, temple steps and tiers were also festooned with flowers, banners and other decorations. Each pyramid had a flat top to accommodate dancers and priests performing rites.

Close to the temple steps there was usually a sacrificial slab and braziers. The temple house calli itself was relatively small, although the more important ones had high and ornately carved internal ceilings.

To maintain the sanctity of the gods, these temple houses were kept fairly dark and mysterious — a characteristic that was further enhanced by having their interiors swirling with smoke from copal incense and the burning of offerings.

Cortes and Diaz describe these sanctuaries as containing sacred images and relics of the gods, often bejeweled but shrouded under ritual clothes and other veils, and hidden behind curtains hung with feathers and bells.

Flowers and offerings including a great amount of blood generally covered much of the floors and walls near these images. Each image stood on a pedestal and occupied its own sanctuary.

In the ceremonial center of Tenochtitlan, the most important temple was the Great Temple which was a double pyramid with two temples on top. One was dedicated to Huitzilopochtli this temple was called Coatepetl "snake mountain", and the other temple was dedicated to Tlaloc.

Below the Tlatoani were the high priests of these two temples. Both high priests were called by the title Quetzalcoatl — the high priest of Huitzilopochtli was Quetzalcoatl Totec Tlamacazqui and the high priest of Tlaloc was Quetzalcoatl Tlaloc Tlamacazqui.

Furthermore, all the Calpullis had special temples dedicated to the patron gods of the calpulli. The Aztec world consisted of three main parts: The earth and the underworld were both open for humans to enter, whereas the upper plane in the sky was impenetrable to humans.

Existence was envisioned as straddling the two worlds in a cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth. Thus as the sun was believed to dwell in the underworld at night to rise reborn in the morning and maize kernels were interred to later sprout anew, so the human and divine existence was also envisioned as being cyclical.

The upper and nether worlds were both thought to be layered. Mictlan had nine layers which were inhabited by different deities and mythical beings.

The sky had thirteen layers, the highest of which was called Omeyocan "place of duality" and served as the residence of the progenitor dual god Ometeotl.

The lowest layer of the sky was a verdant spring-like place with abundant water called Tlalocan "the place of Tlaloc". After death the soul of the Aztec went to one of three places: Souls of fallen warriors and women that died in childbirth would transform into hummingbirds that followed the sun on its journey through the sky.

Souls of people who died from less glorious causes would go to Mictlan. Those who drowned would go to Tlalocan. In Aztec cosmology, as in Mesoamerica in general, geographical features such as caves and mountains held symbolic value as places of crossing between the upper and nether worlds.

The cardinal directions were symbolically connected to the religious layout of the world as well; each direction was associated with specific colors and gods.

To the Aztecs, death was instrumental in the perpetuation of creation, and gods and humans alike had the responsibility of sacrificing themselves in order to allow life to continue.

This worldview is best described in the myth of the five suns recorded in the Codex Chimalpopoca, which recounts how Quetzalcoatl stole the bones of the previous generation in the underworld, and how later the gods created four successive worlds or "suns" for their subjects to live in, all of which were destroyed.

Then by an act of self-sacrifice , one of the gods, Nanahuatzin "the pimpled one" caused a fifth and final sun to rise where the first humans, made out of maize dough, could live thanks to his sacrifice.

Blood sacrifice in various forms were conducted. Both humans and animals were sacrificed, depending on the god to be placated and the ceremony being conducted, and priests of some gods were sometimes required to provide their own blood through self-mutilation.

Sacrificial rituals among the Aztecs and in Mesoamerica, in general, must be seen in the context of religious cosmology: Likewise, each part of life had one or more deities associated with it and these had to be paid their dues in order to achieve success.

Gods were paid with sacrificial offerings of food, flowers, effigies, and quail. But the larger the effort required of the god, the greater the sacrifice had to be.

Blood-fed the gods and kept the sun from falling. The people who were sacrificed came from many segments of society, and might be a war captive, slave, or a member of Aztec society; the sacrifice might also be man or woman, adult or child, noble or commoner.

An important aspect of Aztec ritual was the impersonation of deities. As with the impersonation of gods, Aztec ritual was often a reenactment of a mythical event which at once served to remind the Aztecs of their myths but also served to perpetuate the world by repeating the important events of the creation.

The Aztec religious year was connected mostly to the natural day calendar, the xiuhpohualli "yearcount" — which followed the agricultural year.

Each of the 18 twenty-day months of the religious year had its particular religious festival — most of which were connected to agricultural themes.

The greatest festival was the Xiuhmolpilli or New Fire ceremony held every 52 years when the ritual and agricultural calendars coincided and a new cycle started.

In the table below, the veintena festivals are shown, the deities with which they were associated and the kinds of rituals involved.

The main deity in the Mexica religion was the sun god and war god , Huitzilopochtli. He directed the Mexicas to found a city on the site where they would see an eagle , devouring not all chronicles agree on what the eagle was devouring, one says it was a precious bird, and though Father Duran says it was a snake, this is not mentioned in any pre-Hispanic source perched on a fruit bearing nopal cactus.

Legend has it that this is the site on which the Mexicas built their capital city of Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco where modern-day Mexico City is located.

This legendary vision is pictured on the Coat of Arms of Mexico. According to their own history, when the Mexicas arrived in the Anahuac Valley around Lake Texcoco, they were considered by the other groups as the least civilized of all.

The Mexicas decided to learn, and they took all they could from other peoples, especially from the ancient Toltec whom they seem to have partially confused with the more ancient civilization of Teotihuacan.

To the Mexicas, the Toltecs were the originators of all culture; "Toltecayotl" was a synonym for culture.

Mexica legends identify the Toltecs and the cult of Quetzalcoatl with the mythical city of Tollan , which they also identified with the more ancient Teotihuacan.

As the Mexica rose in power, they adopted the Nahua gods at equal status to their own. According to Aztec legend, the twin gods Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl were sent by the other gods to steal the bones of the previous generation of gods from Mictlantecuhtli.

The shattered bones were collected by Quetzalcoatl and carried back to the land of the living, where the gods transformed them into the various races of mortals.

When a person died, they were interred with grave goods, which they carried with them on the long and dangerous journey to the underworld.

Upon arrival in Mictlan these goods were offered to Mictlantecuhtli and his wife. He then calls the bees to enter the shell and to make it sound out like a trumpet.

Mictlantecuhtli, now very angry, orders his followers to create a very deep pit. He falls into the pit and dies or so it would appear , and is subsequently tormented by the animal the quail , and the bones he is carrying are scattered.

The quail then begins to gnaw on the bones. It is for this reason that people today come in all different sizes. Leeming, David Adams The Oxford companion to world mythology.

The Myth of Quetzalcoatl: Religion, Rulership, and History in the Nahua World. U Press of Colorado. Media related to Mictlantecuhtli at Wikimedia Commons.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the comic book character, see Mictlantecuhtli comics. U Presso of Colorado. An iconographic inquiry into the pre-Hispanic nature of the tzitzimime".

Royal Academy of Arts. Miller, Mary ; Karl Taube []. Handbook of Mesoamerican Mythology. Handbooks of world mythology series.

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